It can hardly come as a surprise that embattled Japanese
Prime Minister Naoto Kan announced today his country would
move away from nuclear fuel and toward renewable energy sources like solar,
wind, and biomass. After all, the March 11
earthquake and tsunami brought the country to the brink of nuclear
disaster. And the area around the Fukushima nuclear plant remains a no-go zone
four months later (check
out this ebook from Foreign Policy on Japan's post-Fukushima future). Anti-nuclear sentiment has grown ever
since -- making it a major political issue.
There are legitimate questions, nevertheless, about whether
Japan could actually shift away from nuclear power. Japan is incredibly
dependent on nuclear energy -- the country's 54 nuclear reactors account
for 30 percent of its electricity; pre-earthquake estimates noted that the
share to grow to 40 percent by 2017 and 50 percent by 2030. The prime minister
today offered few details on how he'll transition away from nuclear reliance.
Japan joins a list of nuclear countries that have
grown increasingly skittish about the controversial energy source since the
disaster in March.
Germany announced plans in late May to close all the country's
nuclear power plants by 2022 -- making it the largest industrialized nation
to do so. Nuclear power supplies 23 percent of its energy grid. Since the Japan
disaster it has permanently shuttered eight plants (including the seven oldest
in the country). That leaves nine plants to go -- six of which, the government
announced, will close up by 2021.
This isn't the first time Germany tried to shutter its
nuclear plants. The previous center-left government had a similar plan, though
it was reversed last September by Chancellor Angela Merkel and her coalition, which
said the technology was still necessary. Fukushima changed all that.
country plans to make up the difference by cutting energy usage by 10 percent,
it said, with more energy efficient appliances and buildings and to increase
the use of wind energy.
neutrality here -- the government announced in May it too was taking a side
against nuclear technology, in response to Japan's disaster. Nuclear energy accounts for
roughly 40 percent
of Switzerland's energy supply. Its five nuclear reactors won't fully be phased
out, experts estimate, until 2040.
The move is popular with the Swiss citizens -- 20,000 of whom demonstrated
against the technology before the government's decision.
month, Silvio Berlusconi's plans to return Italy to the nuclear club were dashed by a referendum that found 90
percent of Italians rejected the technology.
result the embattled prime minister said, "We shall probably
have to say goodbye to nuclear [energy]." He noted that the government will
instead shift its energies to developing renewable energy sources.
Berlusconi had been trying to reconstitute an
industry that was already abandoned once before -- back in 1987. Currently
there are no nuclear plants, but the prime minister hoped to get nuclear power
to account for a quarter of the country's energy needs and planned to begin
building new plants by as early as 2013.
the fact that nuclear energy only accounts for less than 5 percent of the market in
Mexico, which has only one plant, a recent worldwide survey found that Mexico was one
of the most anti-nuclear countries in the world, with about 80 percent of its
population opposing the power source. That doesn't bode well for future nuclear development.
one of only three Latin American nations that uses nuclear power. And last year
country delayed a decision until at least 2012 on whether to go ahead with
plans to build 10 more plants, according to the country's energy minister.
Felipe Calderon has said he'd push to make sure "clean energy" accounts for at
least 35 percent of the country's energy needs.
clear, France is unlikely to ditch nuclear power completely anytime soon. A
longtime champion of the technology, it accounts for 75 percent of the
country's energy needs. But there are indications political leaders are falling
out of love -- ever so slightly -- with the power source. On Friday, July 8 the government launched a study of energy
that included one potential scenario of completely doing away with nuclear
power by 2040. It's the first time the government has ever even mentioned the
possibility. A more likely result of the study will be cutting the nuclear share
of the market. Indeed, France has increased its investment in
government is likely responding to growing public pressure to do away with
nuclear energy. A recent BBC survey found 57 percent of French
respondents opposed the technology.